Article 40 of the TRIPS Agreement provides that certain practices or conditions relating to intellectual property rights that restrict competition may have negative effects on trade and impede the transfer and dissemination of technology (paragraph 1). In accordance with the other provisions of the Agreement, Member States may take appropriate measures to prevent or control abusive and anti-competitive IPR licensing practices (paragraph 2). The Agreement provides for a mechanism where by which a country wishing to combat practices in which companies of another Member State participates shall enter into consultations with that other Member State and provide non-confidential information publicly available and relevant to the matter in question and other information at its disposal, subject to national law and the conclusion of satisfactory agreements on compliance with its confidentiality by the requirement. (paragraph 3). Similarly, a country whose companies are subject to such measures in another Member State may enter into consultations with that Member (paragraph 4). The TRIPS Agreement introduced intellectual property rights into the multilateral trading system for the first time and remains the most comprehensive multilateral agreement on intellectual property to date. In 2001, developing countries, concerned about the industrialized countries` insistence on an overly narrow interpretation of TRIPS, launched a round table that resulted in the Doha Declaration. The Doha Declaration is a WTO declaration that clarifies the scope of TRIPS and, for example, states that TRIPS can and should be interpreted with the aim of „promoting access to medicines for all”. Bretton Woods was the first agreement reached by different countries in 1944 to regulate international monetary policy. It established two institutions (also known as the Bretton Woods Institutions), namely the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) in 1945 and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1946.
Subsequently, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was created in 1947 for the harmonization of world trade. Article 1 of the Agreement provides that Member States shall implement the provisions of the Agreement in a manner that the Member States deem appropriate, i.e. that the standards of the provisions of the Agreement are a `minimum` to be maintained on the ground and that nations may continue to invoke full protection on national territory. Intellectual property acquired in one country cannot be applied in another country. The minimum standards of conservation and basic application laid down in the TRIPS Agreement enable Member States to enforce the above-mentioned basic standards; second, the introduction of a higher level of protection on the national territory, so that members must have „TRIPS plus” laws and regulations. These higher standards are now reflected in the world trade calendar, as free trade agreements (FTA) have been concluded between trading partner countries. However, since these agreements set much higher standards than those of the TRIPS Agreement, they can remove the flexibilities that exist in the agreement. . . .